Technical Analysis vs. Fundamental Analysis

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If you are new to trading, you may have heard of fundamental analysis and technical analysis.

Many investors consider themselves to be one or the other, but in reality, most investor use a combination of the two. To simply define them: Fundamental analysis is the examination of the market fundamentals of a company. That is, they look at the value of the business based upon existing figures such as profit/loss, ratios like price/earnings, the management team, the success of the brand and many hundreds of other potential factors. Fundamental Analysis is essentially accounting.

Technical analysis ignores these fundamentals and simply examines the motion of the stock by analyzing stock charts. They are concerned with what the stock price is, where it was, and where it will go. They use current and historical prices to determine trends in the stock. They analyses items such as Moving Average Convergence Divergence (aka MACD), Bollinger Bands, Stochastic Oscillator, volume, Outside Reversal, and many other technical terms. If these terms seem foreign to you, then you have a lot to learn.

The end result of TA is that you will be able to tell if a stock is overbought or oversold,

The author of this article is primarily a fundamental investor. I examine balance sheets, quarterly reports and compile data that will lead me to determine if the company is growing or going to recede.


Canadian Perspective on Stock Analysis

There are many good articles available about the comparison of these two types of analysis, but we hope to add a uniquely Canadian flair to the proceedings. If you are a fundamental investor looking for information about Canadian equities, you will need to visit a good website that portrays the information for you; or, you will need to dig it up yourself.

If you are looking for a website that distills the data for you, we would recommedn Yahoo! Finance Canada, but if they do not have the data (as they sometimes dont for Canadian companies), we would recommend the Globe and Mail Investor. Google Finance is also a good resource. Off the top of my head, we can only recommend TMX money otherwise. There arent a great deal of awesome financial resources in Canada. Each of these are easy to google. If you want to dig up the info yourself, then we would recommend you check out the SEDAR quarterly and anaual reports yourself. These are available on the SEDAR page where you will have to enter a CAPTCHA to proceed to information on a specific stock.

If you are looking for technical analysis of stock trends information, then again Yahoo! Finance is the place to go. Google Finance will also provide some info,

Further Reading Fundamental Analysis

Below we have Fundamental Analysis terms and a brief definition for some of them. They are organized alphabetically for your convienience.

# Terms

Reports: 8-K, 10-Q

A Terms

Abnormal Return: is the difference between the expected return of a stock and the actual return
Abandonment Value
Above The Line Deduction
Above Water: Meaning that an investment asset has equity remaining in it in excess to the debt.
Absolute Physical Life: is the length of time that it will take until a physical asset becomes worthless through depreciation.
Absorbed Account
Absorption Costing
Accelerated Cost Recovery System ACRS
Accelerated Depreciation
Accelerated Vesting
Acceleration Life Insurance
Accelerator Theory
Accidental High Yielder
Accommodation Endorsement
Account Activity
Account Analysis
Account Balance
Account Freeze
Account Hold
Account In Trust
Account Reconcilement

Grouping of Accounting terms refering to accounts:
Accounts Payable AP
Accounts Payable Subsidiary Ledger
Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio
Accounts Receivable (A/R) Discounted
Accounts Receivable AR
Accounts Receivable Aging
Accounts Receivable Conversion ARC
Accounts Receivable Insurance
Accounts Receivable Subsidiary Ledger
Accounts Uncollectible

Accredited In Business Valuation ABV
Accreted Value
Accretive Acquisition
Accrual Accounting
Accrual Rate
Accrued Expense
Accrued Income: income that has been earned by a company but has not yet been received by said company.
Accrued Interest Adjustment
Accrued Liability
Accrued Revenue
Accumulated Benefit Obligation
Accumulated Depreciation: is a loss due to an on-the-book depreciation of an asset that does not currently affect cash flow. It counts against earnings, but doesnt affect cash.
Accumulated Earnings and Profits
Accumulated Fund
Accumulated Income
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Acquired Fund Fees And Expenses AFFE
Acquisition Cost
Acquisition Debt
Active Income
Activity Based Management ABM
Activity Capacity
Activity Center
Activity Cost Driver
Activity Cost Pool
Activity Ratio: a company's ability to convert current accounts into sales of cash.
Activity-Based Budgeting ABB
Activity-Based Costing ABC
Actuarial Basis Of Accounting
Actuarial Cost Method
Actuarial Equivalent
Actuarial Gain Or Loss
Actuarial Rate
Actuarial Science
Actuarial Valuation
Add To Cash Value Option
Additional Paid In Capital
Adequate Disclosure
Adjunct Account
Adjusted Balance Method
Adjusted Basis
Adjusted Cost Base ACB
Adjusted Funds From Operations AFFO
Adjusted Premium Method
Administered Price
Administrative Services Only ASO
ADP National Employment Report
Advance Corporation Tax ACT
Advance Determination Ruling ADR
Advanced Funded Pension Plan
Advanced Internal Rating-Based AIRB
Adverse Action
Adverse Opinion
Adversely Classified Asset
Advertising Costs
Affinity Card
Affirmative Covenant
After Tax Operating Income ATOI
After-Tax Income: simply the income a company has earned after income taxes have been paid (or refunds have been received).
After-Tax Profit Margin: the profit margin % after income taxes have been paid.
Aggressive Accounting
Aggressive Investment Strategy
All-Purpose Financial Statement
Allowance For Bad Debt
Allowance For Doubtful Accounts
Alternative Depreciation System ADS
Alternative Fuels Tax Credit
Altman Z-Score: is a mathematically calculated score used to predict the likelihood of bankruptcy in a company
Amount Realized
Annual Addition
Annual Premium Equivalent APE
Annual Turnover
Anticipation Note
Any-Occupation Policy
Applied Overhead
Appraisal Method Of Depreciation
Appropriated Retained Earnings
Appropriation Account
Assemble To Order ATO
Assembly Language
Asset Coverage Ratio: a quick test that uses math to determine if a company is likely able to cover their debts with their assets and how well they are able to do so.
Asset Depreciation Range ADR
Asset Financing
Asset Ledger
Asset Performance
Asset Play
Asset Redeployment
Asset Retirement Obligation
Asset Stripping
Asset Turnover
Asset Valuation
Asset-Based Finance
Asset-Based Lending
Asset-Conversion Loan
Asset-Liability Committee ALCO
Asset-Light Debt
Asset/Liability Management
Assignment Of Accounts Receivable
Assumption Endorsement
Assurance Services
Attribute Sampling
Audit Cycle
Audit Department
Audit Risk
Audit Trail
Auditing Evidence
Auditor's Opinion
Auditor's Report
Authorized Participant
Automatic Bill Payment
Available Funds
Available Seat Miles ASM
Average Age Of Inventory
Average Annual Current Maturities
Average Balance
Average Collection Period
Average Cost Flow Assumption
Average Daily Balance Method
Average Indexed Monthly Earnings AIME
Average Inventory
Average Margin Per User AMPU
Average-Cost Method
Avoidable Cost

B Terms

B Ratings:

Baby Boomer Age Wave Theory
Backflush Costing
Backorder Costs
Bad Bank
Bad Debt Expense
Bad Debt Recovery
Bad Debt Reserve
Bait Record
Balance Sheet
Balanced Budget
Bank Card Association
Bank Rating
Bank Reserve
Bank Statement
Banker's Blanket Bond
Bankruptcy Financing
Bankruptcy Trustee
Banks For Cooperatives
BanxQuote Money Markets Index
Bargain Purchase Option
Bargain Renewal Option
Barrel Of Oil Equivalent (BOE): used in the energy industry to describe the amount of energy produced by a barrel of oil. It is used to quantify how much energy other energy sources are able to produce. See also: Energy.
Base Pay
Base-Year Analysis
Basel II
Basing Point
Batch Processing
Batch-Level Activities
Beginning Inventory BI
Benefit Cost Ratio BCR
Benefit Period
Beneish Model
Benjamin Graham: known as the father of fundamental analysis, he was a prominent investor in the early 1900s who was mentor to Warren Buffet.
Berry Ratio
Best Of Breed
Beta Alpha Psi
Betterment Insurance
Big Bath
Big Four (or Big Five, Big Six, Big Eight
Bill And Hold
Bill-And-Hold Basis
Blank Endorsement
Blind Entry
Block Positioner
Bond ETF: is an ETF that contains entirely bonds. Be they corporate, municipal or otherwise
Bond Laddering
Book To Ship Ratio
Book Value
Book Value Of Equity Per Share BVPS
Book Value Per Common Share
Book-to-Bill Ratio
Book-To-Market Ratio
Bottom Line
Branch Accounting
Brand Awareness
Break-Even Analysis
Broad-Based Weighted Average Ratchet
Budget Committee
Budget Manual
Budget Planning Calendar
Budget Variance
Budgetary Slack
Building Society
Bull/Bear Ratio: is a ratio used to descibe the number of bears vs bulls that are currently trading on the options market. It is simply calculated by monitoring options call vs puts
Bundle Of Rights
Burst Basket
Business Asset
Business Interest Expense
Business Inventories
Business Plan
Business Process Outsourcing BPO

C Terms

Calamity Call
Calculated Intangible Value CIV
Call Report
Camouflage Compensation
Canadian Rollover Mortgage
Capacity Requirements Planning CRP
Capacity Utilization Rate
Capital Accumulation
Capital Addition
Capital Appreciation
Capital Asset
Capital Asset Pricing Model CAPM
Capital Base
Capital Budgeting
Capital Employed
Capital Expenditure CAPEX
Capital Formation
Capital Gain
Capital Gains Yield
Capital Gearing
Capital Improvement
Capital Intensive
Capital Lease
Capital Loss Carryover
Capital Rationing
Capital Reduction
Capital Reserve
Capital Stock
Capital Structure
Capital Surplus
Capitalization Of Earnings
Capitalization Rate
Capitalized Cost
Capitalized Lease Method
Captive Finance Company
Car Title Loan
Carried Interest
Carrot Equity
Carrying Cost Of Inventory
Carrying Costs
Carrying Value
Cash Accounting
Cash And Cash Equivalents CCE
Cash Asset Ratio
Cash Available For Debt Service CADS
Cash Available For Distribution CAD
Cash Basis
Cash Book
Cash Budget
Cash Charge
Cash Conversion Cycle CCC
Cash Cost
Cash Cow
Cash Disbursement Journal
Cash Discount
Cash Earnings Per Share Cash EPS
Cash Equivalents
Cash Flow
Cash Flow After Taxes CFAT
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Cash Flow From Investing Activities
Cash Flow From Operating Activities
Cash Flow Loan
Cash Flow Per Share
Cash Flow Plans
Cash Flow Return on Investment CFROI
Cash Flow Statement
Cash Flow To Capital Expenditures CF to CAPEX
Cash Flow Underwriting
Cash For Clunkers
Cash Liquidation Distribution
Cash Management
Cash Reserves
Cash Return On Assets Ratio
Cash Return On Capital Invested CROCI
Cash Transaction
Cash Value Added CVA
Cash Wages
Cash-on-Cash Yield
Casualty Actuarial Society CAS
Casualty And Theft Losses
Catastrophe Futures
Caveat Subscriptor
Certificate of Deposit Account Registry Service CDARS
Certified Financial Statement
Certified Forensic Financial Analyst CFFA
Certified Information Systems Auditor CISA
Certified Insolvency And Reorganization Accountant CIRA
Certified Internal Auditor CIA
Certified Management Accountant CMA
Certified Public Accountant CPA
Chain Store Sales
Challenger Job-Cut Report
Channel Check
Channel Stuffing
Charge And Discharge Statement
Charitable Contributions Deduction
Chartered Accountant CA
Chartered Asset Manager CAM
Chartered Financial Consultant ChFC
Chartered Portfolio Manager CPM
Chartered Wealth Manager CWM
Chasing Nickels Around Dollar Bills
Chief Executive Officer --CEO
Chief Investment Officer CIO
Chief Operating Officer COO
Child Support
Circulating Capital
Civil Service Retirement System CSRS
Classical Growth Theory
Clean Balance Sheet
Close Period
Closed Corporation
Closed Fund
Closed Loop MRP
Closing Entry
Co-Tenancy Clause
Comfort Letter
Commercial and Industrial (C&I) Loan
Commercial Policy
Commissioners Standard Ordinary Mortality Table
Common Size Balance Sheet
Common Size Financial Statement
Common Size Income Statement
Community Development Financial Institution CDFI
Company Owned Life Insurance COLI
Comparative Statement
Comparative Statements
Completed Contract Method - aka CCM
Comprehensive Income
Comprehensive Tax Allocation
Condensed Financials
Conduit Issuer
Congeneric Merger
Conglomerate Discount
Congressional Oversight Panel COP
Consolidated Financial Statements
Constant Currencies
Constant Dollar
Constant Dollar Accounting
Constant Ratio Plan
Constructive Dividend
Consumer Financial Protection Bureau CFPB
Consumer Interest
Consumer Spending: describes the current rate of retail goods and service purchases by consumers. Recently has become a very important metric in the "health" of the economy.
Consumption Capital Asset Pricing Model CCAPM
Consumption Smoothing
Contingent Asset
Contingent Liability
Contingent Payment Sale
Continuing Operations
Continuous Audit
Continuous Operations
Contributed Capital
Contributed Surplus
Contribution Margin
Controlled Foreign Corporation CFC
Controlling Interest
Cook The Books: is a slang term that usually involves illegally altering the accounting of a company to save on taxes or make it appear more attractive to investors
Core Assets
Core Capital
Core Competency
Core Earnings
Core Liquidity
Core Liquidity Provider
Corporate Governance: is a term used to descibe the quality and other aspect of those in charge of a corporation, Usually the board and executives.
Corridor Rule
Cost Accounting
Cost Accounting Standards Board CASB
Cost Cutting
Cost Of Capital
Cost Of Debt
Cost Of Equity
Cost Of Funds
Cost Of Goods Sold COGS
Cost Of Labor
Cost Of Revenue
Cost Per Available Seat Mile CASM
Cost Per Gross Addition CPGA
Cost Synergy
Costs And Expenses
Council of Petroleum Accountants Societies COPAS
Coverage Initiated
Coverage Ratio
Covered Stock (Coverage)
Creative Accounting: is a rather cynical term used to describe the act of hiding debts, exagerating assets or other aspects of the balance sheet that may be exagerated (legally) to potentially deceive others into thinking the company has more value.
Credence Good
Credit Analysis
Credit Analyst
Credit Denial
Credit Quality
Credit Ticket
Cross-Border Outstanding
Cross-Sectional Analysis
Crossover Fund
Crown Loan
Cumulative Discount Privilege
Cumulative Translation Adjustment CTA
Current Assets: are assets that are currently available and liquid. Often includes current inventory in retail companies.
Current Cost of Supplies CCS
Current Liabilities: are liabilities that have to be paid in the near term. Usually short term debts or credit notes
Current Portion Of Long-Term Debt (CPLTD)
Current Rate Method
Current Ratio
Current Yield
Curve Steepener Trade
Customer-Driven Pricing
Cycle Billing

D Fundamental Analysis Terms

Day Cycle
Days Payable Outstanding DPO
Days Sales Of Inventory DSI
Days Sales Outstanding DSO
Days Working Capital
De-Escalation Clause
Dead Presidents: is a slang term used to describe hard American currency.
Debt Bomb
Debt Fatigue
Debt Load
Debt Ratio
Debt-Adjusted Cash Flow DACF
Debt-Service Coverage Ratio DSCR
Debt-To-Capital Ratio
Debt/Equity Ratio: is a ratio derived from dividing the ammount of debt a company has on their balance sheet by the amount of equity the company has. A more financially sound company generally has much more equity than debt, but this can vary from industry to industry. Some industries it is acceptable to have a higher ratio.
Declining Balance Method
Defensive Interval Ratio
Deficiency Agreement
Deficit: is a financial term that simply descibes how much of a money shortfal a company or government is experiencing over a time period.
Deficit Net Worth
Degree Of Combined Leverage DCL
Degree Of Financial Leverage DFL
Degree Of Operating Leverage DOL
Degree Of Relative Liquidity DRL
Deleverage: is an event where either by choice or by natural events that a company reduces their leverage. This usually entails selling assets to retire debt. A company that does this is likely less at risk of bankruptcy
Delinquency Rate
Departmental Rate
Deposit In Transit
Depreciated Cost
Derogatory Information
Detection Risk
Determination Letter
Diluted Earnings Per Share Diluted EPS
Dilution: is a term that describes lost share holder equity due to a company issuing new shares. If you own a share at $5 and the company doubles the number of shares outstanding through new share issuances, you will likely see the stock loose half its price as the company has diluted by 50%
Dilutive Acquisition
Direct Cost
Direct Method
Discontinued Operations
Discounted Cash Flow DCF
Discounted Payback Period
Discretionary Cash Flow
Distinct Business Entity
Diversified Company: is a company which has assets in many different sectors and industries. Often a conglomerate
Dividend Drag
Dividend Frequency
Dividend Growth Rate: is the rate at which a company's dividend has been increasing from quarter to quarter or year to year
Dollar-Value ---- also known as LIFO
Domestic Production Activities Deduction
Double Entry
Double Leverage
Double-Cycle Billing
Dow Jones Wilshire Small-Cap Index
Drawing Account
Dry Bulk Commodity: is a commodity that is considered to be part of the dry bulk shipping industry. These commodities are shipped in massive ocean faring dry bulk shipping containers aboard massive vessels that may be too large to traverse the various canals of the world.
Dual Banking System
Due Diligence (often refered to simply as DD): this refers to what YOU should do after reading someone else's stock advice. It means research the stock yourself to verify the stock advice.
Durable Goods Orders
Dutch Book Theorem

E Terms

Earned Premium
Expenses EBITDAX
Earnings Before Tax EBT
Earnings Estimate
Earnings Momentum
Earnings Per Share EPS
Earnings Power
Earnings Recast
EBITA - Earnings before interest expenses, tax expenses.
EBITDA To Fixed Charges
EBITDA-To-Interest Coverage Ratio
ECB Announcement
Economic Capital
Economic Depreciation
Economic Efficiency
Economic Exposure
Economic Order Quantity EOQ
Economic Spread
Economic Tsunami: what we believe to be coming in canada regarding personal debt
Economic Value Added EVA
Effective Debt
Effective Tax Rate
Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval EDGAR: the source for USA filings on eligible audited coporations
Embedded Value
Emerging Issues Task Force EITF
Employment Agency Fees
Employment Situation Report
Ending Inventory
Ending Market Value (EMV)
Endowment Fund
Energy And Commerce Committee
Energy Tax Credit
Enronomics: a fraudelent form of accounting first practiced by the defunct company Enron.
Enterprise Multiple
Enterprise-Value-To-Revenue Multiple EV/R
Enterprise-Value-To-Sales EV/Sales
Entity Theory
Equal Weight
Equity Curve
Equity Method
Equity Multiplier
Equity Premium Puzzle EPP
Equivalent Annual Cost EAC
Esoteric Debt
Estimated Current Return
Event Study
Exceptional Item
Exchange Fees
Exit Option
Expansion Option
Explicit Cost
Exposure At Default EAD
Exposure Draft
External Claim
Extraordinary Item
Extraordinary Repairs

F Terms

Factory Orders: a broad market fund analysis term describing the total dollar value of new orders submitted to factories in a period indicated.
Fair Value
Farm Income
Financial Adviser
Financial Buyer
Financial Distress
Financial Performance
Financial Statement Analysis
Finding And Development F&D
First Call
First In, First Out FIFO
First In, Still Here FISH
Fiscal Year FY: is the year set by a corporation. differs from a calendar year usually.
Fiscal Year-End: is the year end of a company that is indicated by the last day of the 4th quarter. This may be any day and is different from a calendar year.
Fixed Asset
Fixed Charge
Fixed Cost
Fixed-Asset Turnover Ratio
Fixed-Charge Coverage Ratio
Flexi-Cap Fund
Floor Loan
Flow Of Costs
Foreign Fund
Foreign Invested Enterprise FIE
Forensic Accounting
Forensic Audit
Forward Earnings
Found Money
Franchisee & Franchiser
Free Asset Ratio FAR
Free Cash Flow FCF
Front-End Debt-to-Income Ratio DTI
Full Costing
Full-Cost Method
Fully Diluted Shares: the total number of shares that would be on the market if all convertible securities and director held stock options were redeemed on the market.
Fully Funded Documentary Letter Of Credit FFDLC
Fully Valued
Fund Category
Fund Company
Funded Status
Funding Gap
Furniture, Fixtures & Equipment FF&E: a balance sheet item which lists the value of the mentioned items
Future Capital Maintenance
Future Income Tax
Future Value Of An Annuity

G Terms

Gap Analysis
Gearing Ratio
General And Administrative Leverage
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAAP: self evident.
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards GAAS
Gentleman's Agreement
Global Crossing
Global Recovery Rate
Golden Bungee
Goods In Process
Goodwill Impairment: is a balance sheet reported loss in goodwill. It is a seperate charge on a balance sheet and is most likely considered to be an unusual expense.
Goodwill To Assets Ratio
Grandfather Clause
Gross Earnings
Gross Income
Gross Margin
Gross Margin Return On Investment GMROI
Gross Merchandise Value
Gross Processing Margin GPM
Gross Profit : indicates the profit a company has earned before income taxes and other balance sheet items
Gross Profit Margin
Gross Sales - are the total sales of a company on the balance sheet, before any expenses are considered. Similar to Revenue, but with focus on sale.
Gross Value Added (GVA)
Group Depreciation
Growth At A Reasonable Price GARP
Growth Rates
Guaranteed Payments To Partners
Guidance: is information provided by a company in advance of quarterly reports giving a general indication as to where their earnings will lie (eg. higher revenue than expected guidance).

H Terms

Half-Year Convention For Depreciation
Hamada Equation
Hard Asset
Headline Earnings
Hedge Clause
Henry Paulson
Hidden Values
High Minus Low HML
High-Low Method
Highest In, First Out HIFO
Historical Cost
Holding Costs
Horizontal Market

I Terms

Identifiable Asset
Impaired Asset
Impaired Capital
Implicit Cost
Import And Export Prices
Inbound Cash Flow
Income From Operations IFO
Income Spreading
Income Statement
Income Stock: is a stock that is considered a good investment for its dividend payments.
Income Tax Payable
Incremental Cash Flow
Incremental Cost
Incremental Cost Of Capital
Independent Auditor
Indicated Dividend
Indirect Method
Infrastructure Trust
Initial Cash Flow
Inside Director
Institutional Shares
Insurance Underwriter
Intangible Asset: is an asset, like intellectual property, that does not have any tactile liquidation feel and does not physically exist.
Intangible Cost
Intellectual Property: is property that is owned by a company or individual that has no tangible/tactile value. eg. music or computer software codes.
Interest Coverage Ratio
Interest Expense
Interest Rate Risk
Interest Shortfall
Interim CEO: is a CEO of a company who is running the company while a replacement is found for a CEO who recently left the company.
Interim Earnings Per Share
Interlisted Stock
Internal Audit
Internal Controls
Internal Growth Rate
Internal Rate Of Return IRR
International Accounting Standards IAS
International Competitive Bidding ICB
International Federation Of Accountants IFAC
International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS
Intrinsic Value
Inventory Accounting
Inventory Reserve
Inventory Turnover
Investment Interest Expense
Investment Multiplier
Invoice: is a document given to a customer that indicates the money owed to a company for services rendered
Irrelevant Cost
Joint Stock Company
Joint-Life Payout
Junior Debt
Just In Time JIT: a description of the nature of the current state of retail in N. America. JIT delivery refers to the fact that a product goes from manufacture to delivery on store shelves at almost exactly the moment you buy it
Key Performance Indicators KPI
Key Ratio
Kiwi Bond: slang term for a New Zealand government bond
L-Shaped Recovery: a recovery after a recession that is charted in a L formation. An L shaped recovery is considered to be a non-recovery and the recession is still on going.
Labor Productivity
Lady Godiva Accounting Principles LGAP
Lapping Scheme
Large-Value Stock
Last Fiscal Year LFY
Last In, First Out LIFO
Last Twelve Months LTM
Layered Fees
Lease Payments: are rent payments given to the leasor in a lease agreement
Lease Utilization
Leased Bank Guarantee
Ledger Balance
Legacy Asset: is an asset that has been on company books for a very long time. It may be underperforming. The main idea is that it does not factor into the current management's current plans.
Level 1, 2, 3 Assets
Leverage Ratio
Leveraged Buyback
Leveraged Recapitalization
Liability Ledger
Liability Management
Licensing Agreement
Lien Sale
Lien Waiver
Like-For-Like Sales
Limited Recourse Debt
Liquidate: a situation where assets are sold off at market value. A company is liquidated when all their assets are sold off and nothing remains.
Liquidation Value
Liquidity Ratios
Loan Modification Specialist
Loan-To-Cost Ratio LTC
Loan-To-Deposit Ratio LTD
Long Run Incremental Cost LRIC
Long Squeeze: is a period in which a stock that has had a long run up begins to shake off the huge long interest in the stock losing price rapidly. Opposite of a short squeeze.
Long-Dated Asset: is an asset, often an investment, that has a distant redemption date
Long-Run Average Total Cost LRATC
Long-Term Assets
Long-Term Debt
Long-Term Debt To Capitalization Ratio
Long-Term Growth LTG
Long-Term Incentive Plan LTIP
Long-Term Investments
Long-Term Liabilities
Look Thru
Loss Carryback
Loss Carryforward
Loss Management
Low-Cost Producer: usually refers to manufacturing or resource extraction. a low cost producer is a company who can produce items at a lower cost than competitors. This gives them a distinct advantage. eg. a gold miner that can produce gold at $100 per ounce is a low cost producer.
Lower of Cost and Market Method

M Terms

Macro Environment
Make To Stock MTS
Malfeasance: a misconduct
Man-Year: is the work one employee does a year. Somewhere between 1800 hours and 2200 hours of work
Management Discussion and Analysis MD&A
Margin Of Safety
Marginal Cost Of Funds
Marginal Cost Of Production
Mark To Management
Mark To Market MTM
Mark To Model
Mark-To-Market Losses
Market Disruption
Market Orientation
Market Segment
Market Value: is the value of an equity on the stock market. synonymous with market Capitalization
Market Value Added MVA
Market-Based Corporate Governance System
Master of Public Administration MPA
Mat Hold Pattern
Material Weakness
Maturity Mismatch
Merger Deficit
Metcalf Report
Metrics: is a broad term for fundamental ratios and other that are used to value a stock, option or other
Mezzanine Debt
Mill Levy
Minimum Efficient Scale
Minimum Lease Payments
Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System MACRS
Modified Accrual Accounting
Modified Book Value
Modified Cash Basis
Modified Gross Lease
Money-Weighted Rate Of Return
Mortgage-Backed Note
Mosaic Theory
Most Favored Nation Clause
Multiple Compression
Multiples Approach
Multistage Dividend Discount Model

N Terms

Negative Arbitrage
Negative Assurance
Negative Confirmation
Negative Equity
Negative Goodwill: a negative number on a balance sheet that indicates that a company is unliked by the public.
Net Advantage To Leasing NAL
Net Asset Value NAV: is the total value of all assets in a fund or company
Net Asset Value Per Share NAVPS: above divided by number of shares outstanding
Net Debt
Net Income NI: are the earnings of a firm after subtracting expenses from revenues. Similar if not identical to profit
Net Income After Taxes NIAT
Net Interest Cost (NIC)
Net Interest Margin
Net Interest Rate Spread
Net Investment
Net Lending
Net Liquid Assets
Net Loss
Net Margin
Net Of Tax
Net Operating Income NOI
Net Operating Loss NOL
Net Operating Profit After Tax NOPAT
Net Operating Profit Less Adjusted Taxes NOPLAT
Net Payoff
Net Present Value NPV
Net Present Value Of Growth Opportunities NPVGO
Net Proceeds
Net Realizable Value NRV
Net Receivables
Net Sales
Net Tangible Assets
Nevada Corporation
New Growth Theory
Nomination Committee
Non-Borrowed Reserves
Non-Cash Charge
Non-Core Assets
Non-Core Item
Non-Interest Income
Non-Interest-Bearing Current Liability NIBCL
Non-Operating Asset
Non-Operating Cash Flows
Non-Operating Expense
Non-Operating Income
Non-Qualified Deferred Compensation NQDC
Non-Recourse Debt
Non-Recourse Expense
Nonaccrual Experience Method NAE
Nonaccrual Loan
Noncash Item
Noncredit Services
Noninterest Expense
Nonmonetary Assets
Nonparametric Method
Nonperforming Asset: similar to a nonperforming loan, this is an income asset that is no longer serving its purpose of earning interest or income
Nonperforming Loan NPL: a term used in the financial sector to describe a loan that has likely defaulted and is no longer earning any interest and may be a total or partial write off. These are used to calculate the Texas ratio.
Nonrecurring Charge
Nonrecurring Gain Or Loss
Normalized Earnings
Notes To The Financial Statements
Notice Of Assessment NOA
Notice Of Non-Responsibility

O Terms

Obsolete Inventory: company inventory that may not be salable at retail prices
Odd-Days Interest
Off Balance Sheet OBS: items that are concealed in some way from the balance sheet. Usually debt, these items are sometimes referred to "creative accounting"
Offtake Agreement
Opinion Shopping
Organization Of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries OAPEC
Organizational Structure
Original Cost
Other Current Assets
Other Current Liabilities
Other Long-Term Liabilities: balance sheet item indicating other items that to not fall into the categories
Out-Of-Pocket Expenses
Outbound Cash Flow
Outlay Cost
Outstanding Shares: are the number of shares in a company that are available in the market
Over And Short
Overhead: is the ongoing expenses a company must endure to keep running. Eg. Gas bills, etc..
Overhead Rate
Overvalued: the opposite of undervalued. A thesis that a particular stock price has climbed too high and the predictor is anticipating a pullback in price
Owner Earnings Run Rate

P Terms

Paid In Capital
Paid-Up Capital
Past Due Balance Method
Patent Reexamination
Patent Share
Payback Period
Payment In-Kind PIK
Payout Ratio: is the percetage ratio of the size of a dividend paid over the earnings of a comany. Is a balance sheet item used to determine if a dividend is sustainable. Click to read more.
PEG Payback Period
Pending Home Sales Index PHSI
Pension Benefit Obligation PBO
Pension Maximization
Per Capita GDP: is the gross domestic product of a country divided by the number of citizens in the country.
Per Stirpes
Percentage Of Completion Method
Performance Audit
Performance Budget
Periodic Inventory
Perpetual Inventory
Physical Asset: is an asset on the balance sheet that exists physically - a hard asset. Is the opposite of an intangible asset.
Pigovian Tax
Plan Sponsor
Plowback Ratio
Point Of Sale POS
Pooled Cost Of Funds
Pooling Of Interests
Positive Authorization
Post-Money Valuation
Post-Trade Processing
Posterior Probability
Pre-arranged Trading
Pre-IPO Placement
Pre-Tax Operating Income PTOI
Prediction Market
Preferred Dividend Coverage Ratio
Prepackaged Bankruptcy: is a bankruptcy that has carefully predetermined terms. It is a planned bankruptcy and not one of absolute necessity. See the General Motors GM bankruptcy of recent times.
Prepetition Liability
Present Value Interest Factor PVIF
Present Value Of An Annuity
Previous Balance Method
Price Cap Regulation
Price Channel
Price Multiple
Price to Free Cash Flow
Price to Tangible Book Value (PTBV): is the same as P/B Ratio except they do not consider intangible items (eg. goodwill, copyright, human capital) in the company assets. This number is generally higher than P/B ratio,
Price-Earnings Ratio P/E Ratio: Is the stock price (or market cap) of company dividend by their EPS (or overall earnings). This ratio indicates how expensive the company is when compared to it's revenue
Price-Earnings Relative
Price-To-Book Ratio (P/B Ratio): is the price of the company on the stock exchange divided by their book value (shareholder's equity). The lower the number, the closer this company is priced to liquidation value. Value investors are generally looking for a lower number here.
Price-To-Cash-Flow Ratio
Price-To-Innovation-Adjusted Earnings
Price-To-Sales Ratio Price/Sales
Price/Earnings To Growth PEG Ratio
Price/Earnings to Growth and Dividend Yield PEGY Ratio
Pricing Power
Primary Dealer
Priming Loan
Principal Place Of Business: is the primary location of business activity.
Pro-Forma Earnings, Forecast, Invoice
Pro-Rata Tranche
Production Externality: is a cost to production that is not paid for by the company. Usually an expense that is paid by another company or the goverment,
Production Per Share
Productivity And Costs
Profit: Revenue less expenses
Profit and Loss Statement P&L
Profit Before Tax PBT
Profit Center
Profit Margin: is the percentage of revenue that is considered to be profit. The higher the margin, the more room to make mistake or misteps.
Profit Warning
Profit-Sharing Plan: is an incentive to employees of a company to work harder and more dilligently as they will be receiving a portion of the company profits if there is success.
Profitability Ratios
Property Lien: a lien is placed on an item by a creditor who is hoping to recover their loan based upon a sale of the property,
Property, Plant And Equipment PP&E
Proportional Consolidation
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board PCAOB
Purchase Acquisition
Push Down Accounting

Q Terms

Qualified Automatic Contribution Arrangements QACAs
Qualified Opinion
Qualifying Transaction
Qualitative Analysis
Quality Management
Quality Of Earnings
Quantitative Analysis
Quarter : each financial year is divided into 4 quarters, they are (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4). The time in which these quarters exists is set by the company so it differs.
Quarterly Revenue Growth: indicates how much revenue has grown from a previous financial quarter
Quarterly Services Survey
Quick Assets
Quick Ratio: is a solvency ratio that can allow you to quickly determine a corporation's financial health
Quick-Rinse Bankruptcy

R Terms

Range Accrual
Ratable Accrual Method
Rate Of Return
Ratio Analysis
Realization Multiple
Realized Gain & Loss: conversely to unrealized gain or loss. This is a gain/loss that has appears on the books because the stock that lost money has been sold or covered.
Receivables: is a balance sheet term. Used to describe money that is owed to a company.
Receivables Turnover Ratio
Recoverable Reserves
Recycle Ratio
Red: the color red, in accounting and fundamental analysis, means a loss of some kind. A company that is "in the red" is considered to be losing money.
Regulatory Accounting Principles (RAP)
Regulatory Asset
Reimbursable Out-Of-Pocket Costs
Relevant Cost
Remittance Float & Letter
Remote Disbursement
Replacement Cost
Report of Condition and Income
Reporting Currency
Reproduction Cost
Research And Development (R&D) Expenses
Reserve Fund
Residual Value
Restaurant Performance Index RPI
Restricted Asset
Retail Credit Facility
Retained Cash Flow RCP
Retained Earnings: is a balance sheet item that indicates the earnings that have been set aside from previous quarters. The inverse of this is accumulated deficit.
Retention Ratio
Retirement Contribution
Return On Assets ROA - is a ratio that indicates what percent of earnings are of the assets on a company's books
Return On Average Equity ROAE
Return On Equity (ROE)
Return On Gross Invested Capital ROGIC
Return On Innovation Investment
Return On Invested Capital ROIC
Return On Investment ROI
Return On Revenue ROR
Return On Risk-Adjusted Capital RORAC
Return On Sales ROS
Return On Total Assets ROTA
Revaluation Reserve
Revenue: on the balance sheet is the total money that came into a company before expenses are calculated.
Revenue Cap Regulation
Revenue Deficit
Revenue Generating Unit RGU
Revenue Per Employee: is a ammount of revenue divided by the number of employees of a company
Revenue Recognition
Reversionary Annuities
Risk Analysis
Risk Curve
Risk Of Ruin
Risk-Adjusted Return On Capital RAROC
Risk-Free Rate Puzzle RFRP
Rolling EPS
Rollover Risk
Royalty Interest
Run Rate

S Terms

Sales Per Share: are the number of sales divided by the number of stock shares in the company.
Sales Per Square Foot
Sales to Cash Flow Ratio
Same-Store Sales
Secondary Buyout
Secondary Liquidity
Sectoral Reciprocity
Secured Bond
Security Agreement
Security Analyst
Selling, General & Administrative Expense SG&A - is a balance sheet item that summarizes the general day-to-day expenses of a company
Selloff: is a period where investors take profits or cut losses and a stock will drop in price substantially as investors liquidate their positions. This term can also be applied to TA.
Semi-Variable Cost
Sensitivity Analysis
Series A Financing
Service Certificates
Service Shares
Share Capital
Share Of Wallet SOW
Share Premium Account
Shared Equity Finance Agreements
Shareholder Value Added SVA
Shareholders' Equity: is the total assets of a company less the total debt. This is generally considered to be the liquidation value of a company.
Sheriff's Sales
Short Interest Ratio
Short-Term Debt: is debt payable in the near term
Short-Term Investments: are investments that have short terms or that a company is able to liquidate at any time.
Sinkable Bond
Sinking Fund Call
Sixteenth Amendment
Small Business Lending Index SLBI
Small Minus Big SMB
Smart Money: is a term used to describe a collective of wealthy individuals who invest correctly.
Smithsonian Agreement
Soft Economic Moat
Soft Loan
Soft Metrics
Solvency : is a term that describes whether or not a company has enough capital/assets to meet their debt obligation.
Solvency Ratio
Sortino Ratio
Sovereign Credit Rating
Sovereign Fund Of Brazil
Specific Identification Inventory Valuation Method
Specific Use
Spillover Dividend
Spin Out
Split Payroll
Spontaneous Assets
Spontaneous Liabilities
Spotting Clues In Qs
Standalone Profit
Standalone Risk
Standard Deviation
Standby Note Issuance Facility SNIF
State Street Investor Confidence Index
Statement Of Retained Earnings
Static Budget
Static Gap
Statutory Accounting Principles SAP
Statutory Debt Limit
Statutory Reserves
Stock And Warrant Off-Balance Sheet R&D SWORD
Stock Keeping Unit SKU
Stockholders' Equity
Straight Bond
Straight Credit
Sub Account
Subscription Price
Substitution Effect
Subvention Income
Suitable (Suitability)
Sum-Of-Parts Valuation
Sundry Income
Sunk Cost
Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan SERP
Supply Chain
Supply Management
Sustainable Growth Rate SGR
Swap Ratio
Sweat Equity
Synthetic Lease
System for Electronic Document Analysis and Retrieval SEDAR

T Terms

Take-Out Loan
Takeout Value
Tangible Asset
Tangible Book Value Per Share TBVPS
Tangible Common Equity Ratio TCE
Tangible Cost
Tangible Net Worth
Target Cash Balance


Tax Accounting
Tax Anticipation Bill TAB
Tax Base
Tax Clawback Agreement
Tax Deduction
Tax Efficiency
Tax Expense
Taxable Estate
Taxable Preferred Securites

Technical Analysis of Stocks and Trends
Technical Skills
Temporal Method
Term Fed Funds
Term Out
Term Repurchase Agreement
Testamentary Will
Texas Ratio: is a solvency ratio that can be applied to banks only. is a comparison of net unperforming assets to the banks balance sheet.
The Net Internal Rate Of Return Net IRR
Third-Party Transaction
Tier 3 Capital: refers to capital that a bank has on the books.
Tilt Fund
Time-Weighted Rate of Return
Times Interest Earned (TIE)
Timing Risk
Top Hat Plan
Top Holdings
Top Line
Top-Down Investing
Topless Meeting
Total Cost Of Ownership TCO
Total Debt To Total Assets: is a ratio of the total debt a company is carrying on the books to their total assets.
Total Enterprise Value TEV
Total Return
Toxic Debt: are debts that are not likely to be repaid given that the underlying asset has mostly or completely lost its value or has deleveraged
Trade Date Accounting
Trade Working Capital
Trading Below Cash: is a potential sign of an undervalued stock. This indicates that the stock is trading at a price less than the ammount of cash they have per share.
Traditional Theory Of Capital Structure
Trailing EPS: is the earnings per share of an equity based on past quarterly reports
Trailing Price-To-Earnings (Trailing P/E): is the price to earnings ratio based on past quarters earnings
Transfer Price
Transfer-For-Value Rule
Transferable Underwriting Facility TRUF
Translation Exposure
Translation Risk
Transposition Error
Treasury Budget
Treasury International Capital TIC
Treasury Stock (Treasury Shares)
Trial Balance
Two Name Paper
Two-Step Earnings

U Terms

U-Shaped Recovery: the shape of a chart that indicates the type of post recession recovery that the market is experiencing.
Unappropriated Retained Earnings
Unbiased Predictor
Underlying Cost
Underlying Profit
Underperform: a prediction meaning that the stock will experience less price appreciation than a referenced index. "eg. Walmart will underperform the S&P 500"
Undervalued: self evident: when a stock is considered to be incorrectly priced low.
Undisclosed Reserves
Unearned Discount
Unearned Revenue
Unified Managed Household Account UMHA
Uniform Bank Performance Report UBPR
Uniform Rules For Demand Guarantees URDG
Unilateral Transfer
Unit Cost
Unit Sales
Unitized Endowment Pool UEP
Unitized Fund
Unitranche Debt
Unlevered Beta, Cost Of Capital
Unmatched Book
Unpaid Dividend
Unqualified Opinion
Unrealized Gain & Unrealized Loss: is a so called "paper loss" that an investor has occured on a stock that has not been sold or covered to "realize" the loss
Unrestricted Cash
Unusual Item: an accounting term that indicates an item on the balance sheet that is uncommon and will likely only occur once.
Upgrade: when an ratings house increases the value of a stock (BUY, HOLD, SELL, Strong Buy& Sell etc..)
Upside: the price target you have set for potential gains in an equity
Upstream Guarantee
Uptrend: a stock trend that is climbing. TA term also.


V-Shaped Recovery: the charted shape of a recovery after a recession.
Valoren Number
Valuation Analysis
Value: Added, Investing (as Warren Buffet does), Line Index,
Value Trap: appears to be a value stock, but continues its march downward, losing your money
Variable Cost
Variable Prepaid Forward Contracts
Vendor Note
Vertical Analysis
Vest Fleece
Volcker Rule
Volumetric Production Payment VPP
Voodoo Accounting


W-Shaped Recovery: the charted shape of of a recession aftermath on the broad markets.
Wage Expense
War Economy
Wealth Added Index (WAI)
Weighted Average Cost of Equity WACE
Whitewash Resolution
Workable Indication
Working Capital
Writ Of Seizure And Sale
Write-Down | Write-Off | Write-Up - Refers to the tax status of an accounting item
Written-Down Value


Yield Advantage, Spread Premium | Yield To Maturity YTM | Yield To Worst YTW | Yield-To-Average Life


Zero Capital Gains Rate : self explanatory
Zero Prepayment Assumption
Zero Uptick
Zero-Beta Portfolio
Zero-Gap Condition
Zero-Proof Bookkeeping
Zombie Debt - Refers to assets that are no longer performing

More on Technical Analysis

Here is an example of what might be done by a TA analyst. A TA analyst - who might be either a Pattern Day Trader or Noise Trader or Breakout Trader- might use Andrew's Pitchfork to seek Confirmation on a Chartists that Cisco systems is bucking the trend. If that all seems Greek to you, then you will need to do a lot more reading. TA is largely concerned with charts like bar charts, line charts, and others. Some individuals refer to it as Trend Analysis or trading instead of Technical.

Below we will have articles on the many different aspects of Technical Analysis that we will be covering in the future. If a term is hyperlinked, then that means we have written an article on it.


Above The Market
Absolute Breadth Index ABI
Accumulative Swing Index ASI
Adaptive Price Zone APZ
Advance/Decline Index also: Line A/D
Arithmetic Mean
Arms Index TRIN
Aroon Indicator & Oscillator
Ascending Channels, Tops & Triangle | Descending Channel, tops, Triangle
Attribution Analysis
Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average ARIMA
Average Directional Index ADX
Average True Range ATR
Bearish Abandoned Baby. Bearish Belt Hold, Bearish Engulfing Pattern, Bearish Harami
Bell Curve
Blow Off Top
Box Size
Box Jenkins Model
Breadth Indicator
Breadth of Market Theory
Breakaway Gap
Broadening Formation
Bullish: Abandoned Baby, Belt Hold, Engulfing Pattern, Harami, Homing Pigeon
Buy Break, Stops Above, Weakness
Chaikin Oscillator
Chande Momentum Oscillator
Chartered Market Technician CMT
Chikou Span
Choppy Market
Close Location Value CLV
Commodity Channel Index CCI
Commodity Selection Index CSI
Common Gap
Continuation Pattern
Coppock Curve
Corrective Waves
Countertrend Strategy
Cross Sectional Analysis
Cumulative Volume Index (CVI)
Cup and Handle
Cushion Theory
Daily Chart
Dark Cloud Cover
Darvas Box Theory
Dash To Trash
Death Cross
Decision Tree
Demarker Indicator
Diamond Top Formation
Directional Movement Index (DMI)
Disparity Index
Displaced Moving Average
Donchian Channels
Double Bottom
Double Exponential Moving Average (DEMA)
Double Top And Bottom
Down Volume
Downside Tasuki Gap
Downtick Volume
Dragonfly Doji
Dynamic Momentum Index
Ease Of Movement
Elder Ray Index
Elliott Wave Theory
Evening Star
Exhaustion Gap
Exponential Moving Average (EMA)
Failed Break
Falling Knife | Falling Three Methods
False Signal
Fibonacci Terms: Arc, Channel, Clusters, Extensions, Fan, Numbers/Lines, Retracement, Time Zones
Fifty Percent Principle
Filter Rule
Fine Tuning
Flat On A Failure
Footprint Charts
Fractal analysis
Fuzzy Logic
Gann Angles
Gartley Pattern
Golden Cross
Gravestone Doji
Growth Curve
Guppy Multiple Moving Average (GMMA)
Hanging Man
Harami Cross
Haurlan Index
Head And Shoulders Pattern
Heikin Ashi Technique
High Low Index
Hindenburg Omen
Hockey Stick Chart
Hook Reversal
Horizontal Channel
Ichimoku Cloud
Ichimoku Kinko Hyo
Impulse Wave Pattern
Inside Day
Intraday Intensity Index
Inverse Head And Shoulders
Inverse Saucer
Island Reversal
Joseph Effect
Kagi Chart
Kairi Relative Index
Keltner Channel
Kicker Pattern
Kijun Line , Sen
Klinger Oscillator
Lagging Indicator
Line Chart
Linear Price Scale
Linearly Weighted Moving Average
Local Volatility
Lock In Profits
Logarithmic Price Scale
Long Legged Doji
Low Volume Pullback
Market terms: Breadth Indicators, Psychology Risk Premium, Technicians Association (MTA),
versus Quote (MVQ),
Material Amount
Matrix Trading
McClellan Oscillator & Summation Index
McGinley Dynamic Indicator
Mean Reversion
Mechanical Investing
Memory Of Price Strategy
Mini Lot
Momentum Investing
Momo Play
Money Flow
Money Flow Index (MFI)
Morning Star
Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA)
Multivariate Model
Negative Directional Indicator (DI)
Negative Volume Index (NVI)
Odd Lot Theory
OHLC Chart
On Balance Volume (OBV)
Parabolic Indicator
Percentage Price Oscillator (PPO)
Piercing Pattern
Pivot Point
Point & Figure Chart
Polarized Fractal Efficiency (PFE)
Positive Directional Indicator (+DI)
Positive Volume Index (PVI)
Price Action
Price By Volume Chart (PBV)
Price Rate Of Change (ROC)
Program Trading
Property Dividend
Put Call Ratio, Parity
Qstick Indicator
Quantitative Analysis
Range Bound Trading
Rate Of Change
Real Body
Red Candlestick
Relative Strength
Relative Strength Index RSI
Relative Vigor Index RVI
Renko Chart
Resistance (Resistance Level)
Reversal Amount
Rising Bottom
Rising Three Methods
Rounding Bottom
Rounding Top
Runaway Gap
Salomon Brothers World Equity Index (SBWEI)
Sanku Pattern
Selling Into Strength
Senkou Span A
Senkou Span B
Sentiment Indicator
Setup Price
Shooting Star
Short Interest
Short Interest Ratio
Sideways Market / Sideways Drift
Sideways Trend
Signal Line
Signaling Approach
Simple Moving Average SMA
Specialist Short Sale Ratio
Speculation Index
Speed Resistance Lines
Spinning Top
Square Position
Stock Cycle
Structural Pivot
Support (Support Level)
Swing High &Low
Symmetrical Distribution & Triangle
Technical Decline | Technical Indicator | Technical Rally| Technically Strong Market & Weak Marke
Tenkan Sen
Three Black Crows
Three White Soldiers
Thrusting Line
Time Segmented Volume TSV
Tirone Levels
Tit For Tat
Top Down Analysis
Toraku Index
Trade Price Response
Trade Signal
Trade Volume Index TVI
Tri Star
Trigger Line
Triple Bottom
Triple Top
True Strength Index TSI
Turtle Channel
Ulcer Index UI
Ultimate Oscillator
Universe Of Securities
Up Volume
Upside Tasuki Gap
Upside/Downside Ratio
Uptick Volume
Volatility Ratio
Volume Price Trend Indicator VPT
W Shaped Recovery
Weak Shorts
Weekly Chart
Weighted Alpha
White Candlestick
Williams %R
Wolfe Wave
Zig Zag Indicator
Zone Of Resistance & Zone Of Support


Some of the above terms sound kind of silly but TA traders use them all in their analysis.

Ratings: A+/A1, A-/A3, A/A2, AA+/Aa1